DNA Controversy: Why the DNA Results from the 1995 exhumation of the alleged grave of Jesse James, are Tainted.

I wanted to present some of the evidence we’ve gathered over the years just as my late mother, Betty Dorsett Duke had written it. Without further ado, I present you with…

DNA Controversy:  Why the 1995 DNA Results are Tainted….

1. The validity of the DNA Reference Sources.

2. The questionable origin of the teeth and hair used for DNA testing.

As you might imagine, the publication of my book sparked controversy and has continued to generate sometimes heated discussions on the topic of the true identity of Jesse James.

The 1995 exhumation of the purported grave of Jesse James in Clay County, Missouri, and subsequent DNA testing proved absolutely nothing.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, passed directly from mother to child) was chosen for that exhumation because the Y chromosome method of DNA testing couldn’t be used as the location of Robert James’ (Jesse’s father) grave is not known. Hence, there was no Y chromosome DNA reference source available at that time.

But instead of exhumation project leader, Professor James E. Starrs. exhuming Zerelda James Samuel, the mother of Jesse James and also the perfect candidate for a DNA reference sample, he chose Robert A. Jackson and his nephew, Mark Nikkel. Jackson and Nikkel claim to be matrilineal descendents of Susan James Parmer, Zerelda’s daughter, and Jesse’s full-blood sister. Zerelda would have been the perfect choice as a DNA reference source for several reasons:

  1. Most historians agree that she is the mother of Jesse James.
  2. Her remains would share the exact mtDNA sequence as the remains of Jesse James.
  3. She is buried only feet from the purported grave of Jesse James.

Starrs claimed Missouri State law prevented him from exhuming Zerelda’s remains, but upon contacting the Missouri Attorney General’s office, I found that there is no such law.

I have challenged Jackson’s and Nikkel’s validity as DNA reference sources because it is not clear who the birth mother of Jackson’s mother, Dorothy Anne Rose, was. Her genealogical records are highly questionable, indicating that she may or may not be a true matrilineal descendant of Susan James Parmer. And in a case of such historical significance as this–there can be no room for doubt.

It is claimed that Dorothy’s mother is Feta A. Parmer. But Feta’s husband, Bert A. Rose, was married first to a woman named Katie who might in fact be Dorothy’s mother.

Professor Starrs, who is not a forensic scientist but a law professor, did not provide conclusive proof that Dorothy, Robert Jackson, or Mark Nikkel are true descendants of Susan James Parmer.  James Starrs has gained a questionable reputation among legitimate forensic scientists in his chosen hobby of body exhumation.  Click on the following link to see an article written by Amanda Ripley of the Washington D.C.’s Washington City Paperwho interviewed Starrs in 1998: The Bone Hunter(PDF).

The “proof” Starrs offers consists of Dorothy Anne’s death certificate and a 1920 Texas census record. Even amateur genealogists know that those records are only as reliable as the informant providing the information. Starrs has only assumed, not proven, that Dorothy was Feta’s child. And if it turns out that she wasn’t, the entire 1995 exhumation will be totally invalid because those DNA results are based solely on Jackson’s validity as a true matrilineal descendant of Susan James Parmer.

Dorothy’s birth certificate is one of the strangest I have ever seen. The original Texas Certificate of Birth has no name listed in the space for “Name of Child,” and there is no birth year listed–only the date “5/26” with no year designated.

Copies of the original birth certificate and social security application for Dorothy Anne Rose will be shown in the latest edition of my book due out soon.

Feta A. Rose requested that amendments be made to the original record and did so in Oklahoma City, OK (where Robert Jackson resides) on November 4, 1971.  The original record was amended as follows:

Item or Item NO. Entry on Original Certificate Amended Information
Name of Child _ _ _ Rose Dorothy Anne Rose
Date of Birth May 26, _ _ _ May 26, 1914

In checking Dorothy Anne’s application for a Social Security number, I discovered that the Social Security Administration also seemed to question Dorothy’s year of birth–1914 is crossed out.

Now this is the clincher–The 1920 Tarrant County, Texas, census record that Starrs himself used as proof that Dorothy is Feta’s child, also shows a discrepancy in Dorothy’s age.  The census taker listed Dorothy as being 15 years old in 1920.  If this is true, Dorothy Anne would have been born around 1905 and could not have been Feta and Bert’s child, because Bert was married to another woman at that time.  But Starrs just assumes that “the census taker must have erred here since Feta’s age and her living with Allen Parmer in 1910 insure that Dorothy Ann on January 8, 1920 was five, not 15, years of age.” (Professor James E. Starrs, THE JAMES FAMILY MITOCHONDRIAL DNA TREE: Proving the Validity of the Reference Sources)

This controversy could very easily be resolved if Jackson would agree to donate a new blood sample, taken at my expense, under strict chain of custody guidelines. I can only add that if the tables were turned, and I were in Jackson’s shoes, I would be jumping at the chance to defend DNA results which such a high degree of certainty as his is said to provide…against all challengers.

Click here to review more about my DNA challenge to Robert A. Jackson in the article Modern-Day Shootout.

Another key issue with the 1995 testing is the questionable origin of the human hair and teeth that Starrs submitted to the scientists for DNA testing.

Many are not aware that Starrs exhumed two graves marked as those of “Jesse Woodson James” during the summer of 1995:

  1. The Mt. Olivet cemetery site on July 17-19, 1995.2. The original burial site in the yard of the James Farm on September 15, 1995.

Approximately fifteen teeth were unearthed by Starrs at the Mt. Olivet site, the DNA results from which were expected by mid-September. Starrs is adamant that the 1995 DNA results are based on these teeth.

But I find that hard to believe because he obtained a court order to exhume a Tupperware bowl from the original site on September 15, 1995–the exact date he was expecting the DNA results from the teeth retrieved from the Mt. Olivet site. Starrs’ main goal in exhuming the bowl was to retrieve a tooth that was said to be encased there. He was even quoted in the Kearney Courier as saying “that tooth could be the tooth that tells the tale.” Employees at the James Farm & Museum have verified that former museum curator, Milton Perry, placed skeletal remains, including teeth, which are said to have originated from the original grave site, in a plastic container in his desk drawer and handed them out to various individuals as souvenirs.

It is obvious that if in fact Starrs did use some of those teeth for the 1995 DNA testing, there was no chain of custody guidelines used, and therefore no way of documenting their origin.

There are varying reports as to whether or not there were any teeth in that bowl–some claim Starrs expressed disappointment because there was no tooth in the bowl, while Missouri attorney, Stephen Caruso, says there were teeth in the bowl.

The reader may question why Starrs would have even bothered to get a tooth from a Tupperware bowl, if the teeth he retrieved from the Mt. Olivet site gave him the DNA results he was looking for?

Just where did Starrs get the teeth he submitted for DNA testing?

According to Gene Gentrup, the former associate editor of the Kearney Courier, “Starrs credited a tooth retrieved from the James Farm & Museum as being key to his probe.” (Two human teeth found on the grounds of the James Farm & Museum in 1976 were placed in the museum. The James/Samuel family had lived on that site for over sixty years. So it is probable that those teeth could have belonged to Zerelda or any of her children which would result in a positive match to a true matrilineal descendant’s mtDNA sequence.) Not only did the teeth come from the museum, so did the hair used for DNA testing, which Starrs acknowledges. (When my family and I first visited the James Farm & Museum in March of 1996, a sample of Zerelda’s hair was on display. The hair has since been removed from the James Farm & Museum.)


New photo proves Jesse James faked his death

Of course, it’s not up to us to prove who is in the casket, Betty Dorsett Duke has already proven who it wasn’t.  Jesse James was at his funeral but he wasn’t dead.  The funeral photo, courtesy of the Phillips Collection, provides more proof that Jesse James lived & died in Texas at the age of 97.

Jesse James attended his own funeral

For just over two decades my mother, Betty Dorsett Duke; had researched her family story in an effort to determine whether or not her great grandfather was truly the Old West outlaw, Jesse Woodson James; who faked his death and lived to the age of 97 in Blevins, Texas under the alias James Lafayette Courtney.  Several forensic photographic experts had verified that her family photos matched historically accepted photos of Jesse James, Jesse’s mother Zerelda, Jesse’s stepfather Dr. Reuben Samuel and other family members.  Evidence was found in census records, birth certificates, newspaper articles from the time, countless books and other sources including Betty’s great grandfather’s diary in which he signed his name Jesse James.  She even proved that the 1995 exhumation of the alleged grave of Jesse James in Kearney, Missouri, led by professor James Starrs; was tainted and proved nothing.

But, of all her discoveries in her search for truth, one of the discoveries that made her happiest was the photo she liked to call “the eBay photo” which clearly showed her great grandfather Jesse James sitting in his yard in Blevins, Texas next to Annie Ralston and Frank James along with several known family members and close friends standing behind them.’   It was truly an amazing find.

Recently my sister, Teresa Duke, discovered a photo that would have made our mother proud.  This photo (courtesy of The Phillips Collection) is titled:  Jesse James Funeral and it shows exactly what my mother Betty Dorsett Duke, has been saying all these years: “Jesse James attended his own funeral” and “Wood Hite (Jesse’s cousin) was the one who was killed and passed off as Jesse.”

I contacted the agent of The Phillips Collection and he was very kind and graciously gave me permission to post the photo with the provision that I list who he and his team believe some of the people in the photo are and then I will list who my family and others believe they are.  So, I will post the photo with his identities first and I will follow that with the photo listing the identities which we believe to be correct.  Below those I will go into more detail with photo comparisons so as to show why we believe as we do.
jj funeral their labels

Now for the corrected version of the photo:

our labels

Now for the comparisons:

First, I would like to point out that we believe, as do many historians; that Zerelda was 6 feet tall.  It’s been well documented.  At first glance she does appear to be shorter than those around her but if you will notice the ground on which they are standing, it appears to be sloped which is likely the result of soil heaped around the grave.  Jesse’s feet appear to be somewhere between 6 to 8 inches higher than Zerelda’s.  Jesse was over 6 feet tall (which has also been well documented).

Our team agrees with the Phillips Collection team in regards to the identities of Frank James and Zerelda James Samuel, so there’s no need in my opinion to show their comparisons at this time.  So I will get to the comparisons of the two stars of this photo:  Jesse James and Wood Hite.

For the first photo comparison I’ll start with Jesse James.

jj picture compared

Now for Wood Hite:

wood hite in casket

Notice the hair, the shape of his eyes and nose and the high forehead.  He has a beard in the funeral photo and of course, he’s younger in the photo to the left but we believe it is Wood Hite in the casket.

Of course, it’s not up to us to prove who is in the casket, Betty Dorsett Duke has already proven who it wasn’t.  Jesse James was at his funeral but he wasn’t dead.  The funeral photo, courtesy of the Phillips Collection, provides more proof that Jesse James lived & died in Texas at the age of 97.

The afterlife of Jesse James by Roy Bragg

BLEVINS — On a serene hilltop in this quiet Central Texas farming community, one of the fundamental tenets of American history is under attack.

For decades, Southerners have disagreed on Jesse James’ place in the nation’s collective memory. And now, decades after his death, there’s disagreement on his final resting place.

Read more: http://www.mysanantonio.com/life/article/The-afterlife-of-Jesse-James-3428043.php#ixzz1q49wDqZl

So … Who’s Telling The Truth about Jesse James’ DNA Results?

So…Who’s Telling The Truth about Jesse James’ DNA Results?
By Betty Dorsett Duke

There are conflicting reports as to who’s telling the truth about Jesse James’ DNA results. One way to decide who’s telling the truth is to determine who has the most to gain by agreeing with Professor James E. Starrs’ 1995 findings even though they have been found to be flawed.

Stephen Caruso, deputy county counselor for Clay County at the time of the 1995 exhumation and DNA testing of the reported grave of Jesse James, told the Kearney Courier (Clay County, Missouri) the whole thing was “phony.” “They tried to do DNA testing on remains that weren’t Jesse James,” Caruso said. He claims that someone lost Jesse’s hair that was to be tested, but then it suddenly turned up. He also claims someone submitted their own hair in place of the lost hair.

Yet when the James Farm & Museum is asked about the DNA results they claim they were conclusive. What gives? Who are we to believe?

Here’s some facts about the exhumation and DNA results that may help the reader decide who’s telling the truth:

 Stephen Caruso represented the James Farm & Museum during the exhumation and DNA testing;

 The validity of the two men Professor Starrs chose as mitochondrial (mtDNA) reference sources is highly questionable. He (Starrs) admittedly lied about not being able to exhume Jesse James’ mother to use her mtDNA sequence to compare against the mtDNA sequence of remains that allegedly originated from the exhumed grave. (Starrs, A Voice For The Dead, 2005);

 The origin of the teeth and hair reported to have been retrieved from the grave bearing Jesse James’ name which was used for DNA testing is highly questionable due to no chain of custody (http://www.jessejamesintexas.com/dna.htm);

 Gene Gentrup wrote, “Starrs credited a tooth retrieved from the James Farm & Museum as being key to his probe. I worked as associate editor for The Kearney Courier during the exhumation of Jesse James and subsequent DNA tests. I wrote the article in the newspaper’s ‘Special Collectors’ edition in which Professor James E. Starrs said a tooth collected from the James Farm Museum provided the necessary mitochondrial DNA needed to prove that ‘with a reasonable degree of certainty’ the remains buried in Mt. Olivet Cemetery in Kearney are indeed Jesse James. I never heard that any of the teeth found among the remains exhumed from Mt. Olivet carried sufficient DNA for the purposes of Professor Starrs’ investigation. Likewise, Starrs expressed his disappointment that no teeth were found in the “Tupperware bowl” unearthed from Jesse’s original grave at the family farm. I did write in a later story that Starrs credited the tooth from the James Farm Museum as being key to his probe. I never thought to ask about the contradiction. So what about the tooth that Starrs used for mtDNA testing? From where did it come? I hope this is helpful. I am now editor of The Southern Platte Press newspaper in Parkville, Mo.”

 After five years had passed from the announcement of the DNA results and still no published final report, Dr. Anne C. Stone, Dr. Mark Stoneking and Professor James E. Starrs, finally relented to pressure from inquiring minds and published it. However, instead of providing legitimate scientific answers they issued a very unscientific challenge asserting that DNA testing did not prove the exhumed remains were those of Jesse James, but they think they did so it’s up to all doubters to prove them wrong:

“Do the mtDNA results prove that the exhumed remains are those of Jesse James? The answer to this question must be no, as there is always the possibility (however remote) that the remains are from a different maternal relative of RJ [Robert Jackson] and MN [Mark Nikkel], or from an unrelated person with the same mtDNA sequence. However, it should be emphasized that the mtDNA results are in complete agreement with the other scientific investigations of the exhumed remains: there is no scientific basis whatsoever for doubting that the exhumed remains are those of Jesse James. The burden of proof now shifts to those who, for whatever reason, choose to still doubt the identification. The mtDNA results reported herein provide a standard which other claimants to the legacy of Jesse James must satisfy.” (Dr. Anne C. Stone, Dr. Mark Stoneking, and Professor James E. Starrs, Mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA] analysis of the presumptive remains of Jesse James.)

So, dear reader, who do you think is telling the truth?

Source: http://jessejamesintexas.com/ aka https://jessewjames.com

He Saddled up and rode into Eternity

On February 18, 1915 Frank James saddled up and rode into eternity. Tipping my hat to Frank. Below is a link to an old article regarding Frank’s last ride.


And here’s a little tribute song I think Frank would have liked.

“The Kansas City Star” (Missouri) Sunday, February 21, 1915

Yesterday the relatives and friends of Frank JAMES gathered on
the JAMES farm, near Kearney, Clay County, for the funeral.

A strange funeral! Not a prayer. Not a song. No word from a
minister. Just a short speech from a man who saved him from
the gallows, and was his intimate friend — that, and tears of real
love and affection.

Maybe, after all, those tears coursing down the cheeks of old men
who had fought with him, who had seen his loyalty and friendship
tested in the “dark days,” who knew of his struggles to “beat back”
to good citizenship, held greater promise for his soul than all the
prayers, that might have been said, or hymns sung.

Frank JAMES was one guerrilla beloved and looked up to by all the
others. Those veterans of the days of the “red border” went long
distances to be at his funeral yesterday. One came all the way from
Oklahoma. One got up from a sick bed to go, and as he helped carry
the body of his old comrade, he staggered under the weight.

When Judge John F. PHILIPS, in his funeral speech, standing beside
the coffin, half turned and laid his hand upon it and said:

“Since his surrender he acquitted himself always as a man of high
honor,” a dozen voices, tremulous under the weight of years, answered:

“From my many conversations with him I learned that he believed in the
divine authenticity of the Bible,” the judge said, “He believed in the divinity
of Jesus and had sublime faith that his sins were forgiven and that he was
the recipient of God’s mercy and that his soul was saved. He told me that
he did not join a church because that act would be misconstrued; the
world would look upon it as some sort of hypocrisy, as being done for show.
He did not believe that it was necessary to join a church. Knowing that he
had been saved by grace, believing that this was a matter between his own
heart and God alone, he did not think that religious services were necessary
at his funeral. He met death serene and unafraid, confident of the future.

The whole countryside went to the funeral. The buggies line the fence for a
long distance each side of the road gate. Not one-fifth of the crowd could get
into the house. And the country roads were thick with black, sticky mud, and
there was promise of rain in the lowering clouds. Those who went by train had
to go three miles from Kearney to the JAMES farm and there they waited for
hours, walking about the farm, standing in groups on the wet sod under the
bare trees, talking of the old times.

There was Morgan MATTOX who was a comrade of Frank JAMES under
Quantrell, the raider. He came all the way from Bartlesville, Ok., to be at the
funeral, and, out under the big coffee bean tree, besides the grave of Jesse
JAMES, he told stories that made the blood tingle, more thrilling than you’ll
find in any story book, and the hero of them all the man lying dead within the
little cottage.

“Ah, he was the fighter for you — never afraid, true always to his comrades, a
fine soldier” said MATTOX.

There was William GREGG, Quantrell’s lieutenant. who received Frank JAMES
into the band when he was a beardless boy, his heart aflame with hate of the
“blue bellied Yankee soldiers.” GREGG is old and feeble now and it was a great
effort for him to go from his home in Kansas City to the funeral.

“The last time I saw Frank JAMES was last spring when I was down with
pneumonia,” said GREGG. “He came out to my house to see me, and, as he
was leaving he came up to me and laid a 10-dollar bill in my hand and said:

“Bill, take it, you need it, I know; and when you want more let me know and it will
come to you.” And the tears rolled down the sunken cheeks of William GREGG
as he told it, and his voice choked.

The pallbearers were:

Ben MORROW of Eastern Jackson County
George SHEPARD of Lees Summit
John WORKMAN of Independence
George WIGGLETON of Independence
William GREGG of Kansas City

all old Quantrell men;

T. T. CRITTENDEN, whose father, while governor of Missouri, received
the surrender of Frank JAMES.

Among those from Kansas City at the funeral were Judge Ralph LATSHAW,
Charles POLK, Lynn S. BANKS, William M. CORBETT, Hal GAYLORD
and “Dusty” RHOADES.

Immediate relatives of Frank JAMES who were present were:
Mrs. Betty PATTON, his aunt
Mrs. J. C. HALL, half-sister
Mrs. William NICHOLSON, half-sister
John SAMUELS, half brother
Jesse JAMES, Jr., nephew *[recent evidence suggests JJ Jr who couldn’t have been considered a “Jr” because his middle name was Edwards and not Woodson; was very likely the son of Wood Hite who was Jesse and Franks cousin]
and his family, and his sister.”
Source: http://forums.delphiforums.com/n/mb/display.asp?webtag=Zeke1&msg=707.7

Who’s in Jesse James’ Grave?



 Trying to solve this Jesse James history mystery is reminiscent of playing Clue, the classic whodunit game where players search for clues to solve Mr. Boddy’s murder.  Bob Ford confessed to shooting Jesse James dead, but did he?  If not, who was it?  Was it Wood Hite or the hired hand Gibson? Was the body found in a grave or a well?  Did Ford even do the dirty deed? Did the murder really occur at 1318 Lafayette St. in St. Joseph, Missouri?  There are several suspects, bodies, dates, and locations to investigate.

History reports as definitive fact that Jesse James was shot dead by Bob Ford on April 3, 1882 and buried in Kearney, Missouri. But the fact is a well founded rumor began circulating the very day of the shooting claiming that Jesse James was still very much alive.  In fact, it is still circulating to this very day, and I believe it will continue to circulate until the truth of the matter is determined.

As stated earlier, most of us have heard that Bob Ford shot Jesse James dead, yet most are unaware that he also stood trial for shooting Wood Hite dead. Wood was Jesse James’ paternal first cousin, and rode with Quantrill’s Guerrillas during the Civil War.  After the war he is said to have ridden with Jesse James.  Wood was born in Logan County, Kentucky to George B. Hite and Nancy G. James, Jesse James’ paternal aunt.[1]

Wood Hite was reportedly murdered in a shootout with Dick Liddil over the distribution of the loot from one of their train robberies.  Bob Ford reportedly decided to intervene by firing a bullet into the back of Hite’s head.  Frank Triplett, author of The Life, Times and Treacherous Death of Jesse James, described Wood Hite as “a great admirer of himself, as well as of the opposite sex”.  

A special dispatch to the Kansas City Journal on April 6, 1882, the day “Jesse James” was buried, reported the following: “Coroner Richard Bohanon acting on a tip retrieved the body of Wood Hite from Bob Ford’s farm.” It is important for the reader to keep in mind that this information was reported in the newspaper on April 6, but the coroner got the tip on April 5, the night before “Jesse” was buried.

I find it more than just coincidence that the description of wounds on Wood Hite’s body are identical to the coroner’s description of the wounds on Jesse James’s reported body – both shot in the head, both had shattered skulls, and both had wounds over an eye.  However, there was one telling difference. The coroner described a slight wound on Wood’s right arm which was not described on Jesse’s right arm.  Mattie Collins, wife of Dick Liddil, said, “Dick shot three times [at Wood Hite].  One shot entered Hite’s brain, and another went through his right arm.”

As stated earlier the coroner noted a slight wound on “Wood Hite’s” right arm.  Yet he neglected to note a very revealing slight wound on the right arm of “Jesse James”.   Or did he purposely overlook it due to orders from one of the authorities involved in Jesse James’ death hoax?  There is no doubt that that there was a slight wound on “Jesse James” right arm because it is clearly visible in one of “his” reported death photos which may be viewed at: http://www.celebritymorgue.com/jesse-james/.  To me, this wound tells the tale of who was passed off as Jesse James on April 3, 1882…Wood Hite.

The hired hand Gibson was employed by the Fords and reportedly disappeared about the same time Wood Hite did.  To the best of my knowledge there aren’t any known photos of Gibson dead or alive either.  No one knows for sure if he really “went the same way Hite did”, what his full name was, or anything else about him, except that he was reportedly never seen again the day after Wood Hite was shot dead.

Jesse James and Wood Hite, two cousins both reportedly shot dead by Bob Ford, both with identical wounds on their bodies, both of their bodies in the same town, and both of their bodies still unburied on April 5, 1882.  And what a “coincidence” that Wood’s body just happened to be found on April 5 — the night before “Jesse James” was reportedly buried! [2]  Pretty convenient timing to do some body switching before the funeral.  Was Wood Hite’s body displayed as being that of Jesse James’?  And then, in order for his family to take it back home to Kentucky for burial, was his body removed from the coffin, and replaced with the body of the hired hand Gibson and buried the next day as Jesse James?

Some may protest that Jesse James died just as history reports, but too much evidence has been found indicating that he did not for it to be simply denied out of pure  ignorance of the facts.

The facts of the matter are: Animal remains were found in the reported original grave of “Jesse James” located in the yard of the James family farm in Kearney, Missouri; in 1995 Professor James E. Starrs did find the reported skeletal remains of Jesse James were placed face down in the coffin before being placed in a new coffin and reinterred in Kearney, Missouri’s Mt. Olivet Cemetery in 1902.

It stands to reason that two bodies were needed to pull off Jesse James’ death hoax — one to pass off as Jesse James’ and the other to pass off as Wood Hite’s.  And there were indeed two bodies found within two days of each other — Jesse James’ on April 3, 1882 and Wood Hite’s on April 5, 1882.  From all indications Jesse James was not the man living as Thomas Howard at 1318 Lafayette Street in St. Joseph, Missouri who was shot dead by Bob Ford.  But I do believe Wood Hite was, and Gibson’s body was passed off as his body and ended up being buried as Jesse James’ body. 

As stated earlier a special dispatch from Richmond, Missouri to the Kansas City Journal reports that “Gibson”, a hired hand, “disappeared about the same time Hite was killed and is supposed by many to have gone the same way.”  The St. Joseph Herald reported on April 6, 1882: “A man by the name of Gibson has never been seen or heard from since the morning after Wood Hite’s murder.”

Why some adamantly deny that Jesse James faked his death in 1882 is beyond me.  The very individuals claiming this are well aware that he had tried it before, therefore it stands to reason that he would try it until he succeeded. The following excerpt details his first (?) attempt at faking his death:

“On November 2, 1879, “George Shepherd went to Galena, Kansas, a fledgling mining village on Short Creek three miles north of Shoal Creek, and according to the town newspaper, ‘the throng on the streets of Galena was thrown into the wildest excitement and confusion,’ as he started proclaiming to anyone who would listen that he’d just killed the notorious outlaw JESSE JAMES.

Shepherd’s tale was greeted with almost immediate doubt, and suspicion grew when a party of citizens from Galena went out to the scene of the skirmish on Sunday afternoon to look for JESSE JAMES’ body and came back shortly after dark “without any intelligence.” Lawmen from Joplin crossed the state line to aid in the investigation, and the next day, Monday, November 3, Marshal Liggett arrived from Kansas City to lead a fruitless search for the outlaws. As a bold headline in the Galena Miner playfully stated a week later, the question that faced an excited public was “Whether JESSE JAMES, the Robber Chief Lies Dead, or George Shepherd Lies Living.”  The general consensus around the Joplin-Galena area favored the latter conclusion. Jasper County Deputy Sheriff Payton, who’d gone to Short Creek on Sunday evening, told a Joplin Herald reporter the next day, “I saw Shepherd, and he said he was positive he had killed Jesse James, but for all that I do not believe he did.” [3]

*At the time of this writing, we had no photographs of Wood Hite* To the best of my knowledge there are no known historically accepted photographs of Wood Hite alive that have been published, but I believe the reported death photos of “Jesse James” are actually the death photos of Wood Hite.  https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3a50864/

According to published descriptions he and Jesse did not resemble each other with the exception that they both had blue eyes. (View the most famous photo of Jesse James alive: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Jesse_james_portrait.jpg ) However, Wood Hite’s reported physical description does fit the description of the corpse passed off as Jesse James. The corpse found in the house at 1318 Lafayette Street, St. Joseph, Missouri, is described as being between 5’ 8” to 5’ 9″, blue eyes, dark hair, a full-face dark beard, and a slender build.

The historically accepted description of Jesse James does not fit his description from those who knew him best. His mother, older brother, aunt, and comrades described him as tall and well built with sandy-colored hair and blue eyes.[4] His mother, older brother, aunt, and comrades also later said that he did not die in 1882.  Jesse James dressed well and his most famous photograph  indicates that he had good posture with a proud bearing.

The historically accepted description of Wood Hite is as follows: Approximately 5’ 8” tall, stoop shouldered, dark hair, light blue eyes, untidy in his appearance and badly stained decayed teeth. [5]  The teeth Professor Starrs exhumed from the purported grave of Jesse James in 1995 were badly stained and decayed — as one can clearly see this finding exactly fits the description of Wood Hite’s teeth.  Dr. Mark Stoneking, one of the doctors who did the DNA testing on the reported teeth of Jesse James, wrote, “The teeth were corroded and heavily stained indicating that they belonged to a regular tobacco user.” [6]  Zee Mimms, Jesse James’ first cousin and reported wife, swore at the coroner’s inquest held shortly after Bob Ford claimed he shot Jesse dead, that her “husband didn’t smoke nor chew.”  Professor Starrs is quoted as saying “That tooth will tell the tale”, and I, for once, agree with him.  If Jesse James did not use tobacco his teeth could not have been corroded and stained from tobacco use, but Wood Hite obviously did use tobacco and his teeth reportedly were corroded and stained. Whether or not the hired hand Gibson used tobacco and had corroded and stained teeth is not known.

Nearly every news article in 1882 reporting Jesse James’ death also mentioned Wood Hite’s death – almost in the same breath. I at first believed there was only one body involved in Jesse James’ death hoax  — Wood Hite’s. My former belief was based on the striking similarities in the reported descriptions of wounds on the corpses claimed to be those of Jesse James’ and Wood Hite’s.  But, as stated earlier, I have come to believe that there were two bodies needed to pull of Jesse James’ death hoax – Wood Hite’s and the hired hand Gibson’s.  This switching bodies ruse could have easily been accomplished with individuals like Governor Crittenden and Sheriff Timberlake involved in Jesse James’ reported death.  And despite all the media attention Wood Hite’s murder received in 1882, the location of his grave is still not known, and  the same applies to Gibson.

Some claim that the following dispatch proves that Wood Hite was buried in Richmond, Ray County, Missouri, due to the following dispatch, which, in my opinion, is written tongue in cheek, and offers no definitive proof of where Wood Hite is actually buried:

 “A Disappointed Constable from the St. Louis Post – Dispatch Mr. John G. Morris, constable  of Richmond, Mo., recently took a header into the seething cauldron of enterprise and  industry which Gov. Crittenden had caused to boil and bubble in Western Missouri, and  which he returned to the surface he was accompanied by the mortal remains of Mr. Hite, one  of the train robbing gang. He dispatched the following to his excellency in the following  words and letters to wit:

‘I have the body of Wood Hite and am ready with evidence for identification. What shall I do  with it? I claim the reward.’

Mr. Hite’s body has been moldering in the grave and his soul has been a-marching for some  time past, and hence the exploit of digging him up was not as desperate as many would  believe. Gov. Crittenden shed tears of joy upon hearing of Mr. Morris’ find. But the practical  mind of the executive addressed itself at once to the situation and evolved this remarkable  telegram from its interior:

‘On account of the weather, rebury it. No reward offered for his dead body.’ — T. T.              Crittenden.

If anything was needed to show the tenderly care and engrossing motherly affection of the  governor for his good people of Missouri, this message would take the cracker. He does  not want the pure air of the state tainted with a gamey train robber, and while he is evidently  saddened at the disappointment which he must inflict upon John C. Morris, constable, he  does all he can to lighten his burden and to release him from his unhygienic watch and ward.  Mr. Morris has drawn a blank in the lottery of assignation. He has covered the wrong “stiff,”  as it were, and the governor has dealt a split on him. In the mean time if the bones of the dead  bandits are to be scratched up throughout Western Missouri, the coming legislature might  very appropriately amend the arms of the state by substituting a couple of mangy hyenas for  the two rollicking bears which now gambol over the great seal.” [7]

Another thing that smacks of a cover up is the fact that Gov. Crittenden would have notified the Hite family, if there was nothing to hide, so they could make funeral arrangements for Wood Hite’s body.  His father was still alive in Kentucky.  The governor was heavily involved in the reported death of Jesse James, and many also believe that he was involved in the 1882 conspiracy to allow Jesse James to officially kill himself in name only. Great pains seem to have been taken in the above message to make it appear that Wood Hite was not buried until after “Jesse James” was.

Some reports in 1882 claim that Wood Hite’s body was buried under a lot of rocks and dirt, yet   other reports of that time claim his body was found clearly visible in a well:

“Vic Jacobs, the man who purchased the farm where Hite was allegedly murdered, said “The farm was rented by Martha Ford Bolton, the widowed sister of Bob, Charley, and Cap Ford.

The farm of J. T. Ford, father of Martha Bolton and the Ford brothers was about a quarter of a mile southeast of Martha’s place.

Mr. Jacobs said he knew where the well is that Wood Hite was thrown in after being murdered. The house was a two-room log cabin with a furnished upstairs. The well, which is now capped, set right at the back doorstep of the house on the east.

Jacobs went on to say that at the time Hite was killed, Miller Brown’s father was the sheriff of Ray County.  Miller Brown’s father took his teenage son out to the well they found Wood Hite in. There was a large crowd for that time. Wood Hite was lying on his head and shoulders, and his feet were sticking up.” [8]

 Again, there are many indications that Robert Woodson “Wood Hite” was killed and passed off as Jesse Woodson James, but he may not be buried in the grave in Mt. Olivet Cemetery bearing Jesse James’ name as I at first believed. His family may have buried him in Kentucky, and the hired man Gibson may very well be the yet unidentified man who really lies in the grave bearing Jesse’s name.

The following article details Wood Hite’s murder and also describes the wounds on his body, which, as stated earlier, exactly match those on the purported body of Jesse James:

Wood Hite’s Corpse

Special Dispatch to the Kansas City Journal.

Richmond, Mo., April 6. — Yesterday

evening Coroner Richard Bohanon, acting on information obtained from a son of Mr. Jacobs, who lives on Dr. Morby’s farm, just east of  town, went out to the old Harbison farm, occupied by the Ford boys, and in a pasture east of the house


about three feet under the ground, covered with brush; then about two wagon loads of rock, then a lot of dirt.  It was wrapped in an old blanket, and had no clothes on it but a shirt and pair if drawers or overalls.

A slight wound was found on the right arm  and a bullet wound  on the right side of the forehead just above the eye. Beside this the left side of


as if by a blow from a rod of iron. The Jacobs boy got his information from a son of Mrs. Bolton, a sister of the Ford boys, who have been keeping house for them.  The evidence of Mrs. Bolton and her two little boys was taken yesterday evening.

Mrs. Bolton testified that the killing occurred about the first of last December, that Hite, who was only known to her as Robert Grimes, came there and had been there for two weeks when the tragedy occurred; that


occurred at breakfast time in the morning, Dick Liddil having arrived at the house between midnight and daylight that morning, and had slept in a separate room from the one occupied by Hite and the boys.  She said that she had prepared breakfast for the family, and that they had all eaten and gone out, including a hired man named Gibson, and later she had prepared breakfast for Hite and Liddil, and called them. Liddil dressed himself and came into the room prepared for breakfast; Hite came dressed, but desired to wash his face.  He approached Liddil and offered to shake hands with him, but Liddil declined.


in one corner of the room. She said her back was turned and she does not know who shot Hite, but knows that nine shots were fired, one of which took effect in Liddil’s leg, one in Hite’s head, and the others in the ceiling and walls of the room.  When Hite fell the witness ran to him and raised his head, but turned sick and had to leave the room.


was taken to an upper room and kept until night, when it was buried as described by the Ford boys.

The body was placed in a coffin, brought to Richmond and placed in the circuit court room, where it remains, the inquest having been adjourned to get  further testimony. The inquest will be finished to-morrow and the body buried.

The man Gibson, referred to as a work hand, disappeared about the same time that Hite  was killed, and is said by many supposed to have gone the same way. A thorough investigation will be  made.”

As stated earlier, many sources report that Wood Hite was murdered in December of 1881, with dates ranging from the first through the fifth, but other sources from 1882 claim that he was still alive in March of 1882.  This March 1882 date makes my theory very plausible that either Hite, the hired hand Gibson, or both of them at various times, were passed off as Jesse James:

  • On April 5, 1882 The New York Times reported: “In March, 1882, Liddil left Jesse and returned to Martha Bolton’s house in Ray County. Martha was Bob and Charlie Ford’s sister, and a niece of William Ford. Another member of Jesse’s gang was also there — Robert Woodson “Wood” Hite, Jesse’s paternal first cousin;”
  • The April 6, 1882 issue of The Omaha Bee reports the following: “The remains of Wood Hite, one of the James gang, killed in a quarrel at the house of a sister of the Ford boys, the slayers of Jesse James, was found on their farm, where they were buried last evening…;” and
  • Author Marley Brant wrote that Wood Hite was still alive in March of 1882: “In March of 1882 Liddil left Jesse and returned to Missouri, where he stayed at the Ray County farmhouse of Martha Bolton, a widow who was the sister of Charlie and Bob Ford. Wood Hite, the James’ brothers’ cousin, was also there.” (Brant, Marley, Outlaws, The Illustrated History Of the James –Younger Gang, Elliott & Clark Publishing, 1997.)

History reports that Jesse James was using the alias of Thomas Howard when Bob Ford shot him down. But a Winchester rifle Model 1873 retrieved from the house at 1318 Lafayette St., St. Joseph, Missouri on the very day Jesse James was reportedly shot, indicates that instead of Jesse James using the alias of Thomas Howard it was probably Wood Hite.  The rifle had the initials “W.H.” and “T.H.” etched in the metal. [9]  It stands to reason that these initials probably stood for Wood Hite and Thomas Howard. And if Wood Hite was using the alias of Thomas Howard, he was the man Bob Ford shot dead and passed off as Jesse James and he was also Zee Mimms’ husband, and perhaps the father of her children.  But this doesn’t necessarily mean his body was buried in the grave bearing Jesse James’ name.

As far back as 1882 there have been reports that Jesse James was living in Texas at the time of his reported death.  After his reported death on April 3, 1882 a reporter for the Journal interviewed Mr. Mimms,  brother of Zee Mimms and Jesse James’ first cousin, and he wrote: “The subject of Jesse’s reputed rancho in Texas was mentioned and Mr. Mimms only smiled at the idea, and said nothing of the kind had been in existence.” [10]

According to my family story Jesse James AKA James L. Courtney did in fact have a “rancho” in Texas, Buttermilk, Texas to be exact.  Buttermilk was later renamed Blevins, and from all indications Jesse James made it his home in 1871, and died there on April 14, 1943.  He is buried in Blevins Cemetery as James L. Courtney.


[1] Source Citation: Year: 1860; Census Place: Adairsville, Logan, Kentucky; Roll: M653_383; Page: 0; Image: 301.

[2] Good Bye Jesse James, A reprinting of six of the best news stories concerning the career and death of Jesse James, first printed in the Kansas City Daily Journal, 1882.

[3] Wild West magazine, June 2005 “Western Lore”, pages 64&65, George Shepherd ‘killed’ JESSE JAMES…at least that’s what the ex-bushwhacker and ‘gang member’ claimed. By Larry Wood.

[4] Dr. Stoneking,  The Penn Stater magazine.

[5] The University of Texas at Austin, The Life And Trial Of Frank James Eighth Day’s Trial, Tarleton Law Library: http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/lpop/etext/james/eighthday.htm; and Encyclopedia of Western Lawmen and Outlaws by Jay Robert Nash, Sept, 1994.

[6] Jesse James AKA James L. Courtney was tall with sandy-colored hair and had blue eyes.

[7] Good Bye Jesse James, A reprinting of six of the best news stories concerning the career and death of Jesse James, first printed in the Kansas City Daily Journal, 1882.

[8] The Daily News, Richmond, Missouri.

[9] Ross, James R., I, Jesse James, Dragon Publishing Corp., 1988.

[10] Good Bye, Jesse James, Copyright 1967 The Jesse James Bank Museum, Liberty, Missouri.

Fraudulent Jesse James DNA results?

© Betty Dorsett Duke (7/19/2011)

Stephen Caruso, the Deputy Counselor for Clay County during the 1995 exhumation and subsequent DNA testing of Jesse James’ reported grave, recently revealed that the 1995 DNA results touted as proving with a 99.7 degree of certainty that Jesse James died and is buried as history reports are fraudulent. During separate telephone conversations with Texan Betty Dorsett Duke and Missourian Greg Ellison he said that instead of abiding by Clay County Judge Vic Howard’s order for the James Farm & Museum to hand over hair and teeth stored there to Prof. Starrs for DNA testing, he gave him hair he obtained from the head of John Hartman, Director of the Clay County Park’s Department in 1995. The Clay County Parks Department owns and operates the James Farm & Museum, and Caruso represented them (the farm and museum) in their attempt to prevent the hair and teeth from being obtained by Starrs.

Although there are two graves bearing Jesse James’ name in Clay County, Missouri, the original grave a few miles from Kearney in the yard of Jesse James’ boyhood home now turned tourist attraction, and the grave in Kearney’s Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Exhumation Project Leader Professor James E. Starrs originally planned to only exhume the Mt. Olivet grave, but he ended up exhuming the original grave as well. The original grave was exhumed in 1902 for the purpose of reinterring the remains in Mt. Olivet Cemetery, and then reexhumed in 1978 to retrieve remains that were left behind in 1902.

Drs. Stone and Stoneking performed the DNA tests and five years later they, along with Professor Starrs, published their final report regarding their DNA results. They maintain that the hair and teeth used for DNA testing were obtained from the 1978 dig of the original grave, but in 2001 Caruso told NBC 8 KOMU TV Anchorman Jim Riek that the teeth submitted for DNA testing “had nothing to do with the teeth that were dug up.”

Duke relates that the origins of the remains reportedly retrieved during the 1978 dig are highly questionable even if fraud wasn’t involved. She explains that Beth Beckett, the current curator of the James Farm & Museum, told her that Milton “Milt” Perry, the now deceased curator of the James Farm Museum in 1978, performed an unauthorized exhumation of the original grave in Perry encased the human and animal remains retrieved from the grave in a Tupperware bowl and stored it in his desk drawer. Then, as he saw fit, he handed out the remains as souvenirs to various individuals. After being fired for unrelated reasons he augured a hole in the original grave and reburied the Tupperware bowl, along with the remainder of the remains encased in it.

In 1995 the Kearney Courier reported that Starrs obtained a court order to exhume the Tupperware bowl to obtain a tooth that he claimed may “tell the tale”, but later voiced his disappointment that it wasn’t encased in the bowl. Caruso contradicts Starrs’ statement: “We had teeth in the Tupperware bowl. We gave him teeth in the Tupperware.”

Based on the information presented above, one wonders where and who did the teeth used for DNA testing originate from?

Now that the true origin of the hair is known, how can anyone involved in the 1995 exhumation and subsequent DNA results expect the rest of the world to take their word as to the origin of the teeth used for testing?

According to their final report Drs. Stone and Stoneking compared the mtDNA sequence of the hair and teeth submitted to them to the mtDNA sequences of the DNA reference sources (Robert Jackson and Mark Nikkel). Both men claim they are descended from Susan James Parmer (Jesse James’ sister), and therefore share the same mtDNA sequence Jesse James had. A genealogical investigation of their lineage reveals that their validity as mtDNA reference sources is highly questionable.

Duke also inquires how John Hartman’s mtDNA sequence matched Jackson’s and Nikkel’s mtDNA sequences now that Caruso has revealed the mtDNA sequence of the hair had nothing to with them?

Obviously the final DNA report contains conflicting statements. Again, Dr. Stone, Dr. Stoneking, and Professor Starrs state that the mtDNA results do not prove the remains are those of Jesse James yet they also claim “…The DNA results are agreeable with other scientific investigations of the exhumed remains”. Knowing that Caruso claims to have obtained the hair used for DNA testing from Hartman’s head, and also knowing that he said the teeth had nothing to do with the teeth that were dug up, one naturally concludes that none of “the other scientific investigations” are agreeable with the hair and teeth used for DNA testing. Their report also states that there is no scientific basis for doubting the exhumed remains are those of Jesse James.

Only in their dreams, there is every reason to doubt the exhumed remains are those of Jesse James. Professor Starrs used no chain of custody guidelines for the human remains submitted for DNA testing; The hair submitted for DNA testing originated from the head of John Hartman; The teeth submitted for DNA testing are of unknown origin and had nothing to do with the teeth that were dug up; Hartman said, “The results of the 1995 exhumation should be published as they were found, not as they have been framed or sanitized for public consumption;” The validity of the two DNA reference sources’ is highly questionable; and Drs. Stone and Stoneking’s DNA results are highly questionable.

If not for all the tampering with the remains in both of the graves Duke and Ellison would call for them to be exhumed yet again for legitimate DNA testing. However, based on all of the information presented above, neither past nor future DNA results from either of those graves should be trusted.

There is always the possibility that Caruso may have lied about the origin of the hair but why would he, an officer of the court, tarnish his reputation by incriminating not only himself but John Hartman?

Hartman statement about the 1995 DNA results bears repeating because it definitely substantiates Caruso’s claim – “…Framed or sanitized for public consumption”. He was definitely informed of the facts since he was the director of the Clay County Parks Department, the owners and operators of the James Farm & Museum.

Being well aware that the statute of limitations is up on the crime Caruso and Hartman reportedly committed, Duke and Ellison decided that the fraudulent act still needed to be reported to Clay County, Missouri in order for truth to prevail. On July 12, 2011 notarized affidavits were faxed to the Clay County Prosecuting Attorney with the hope that they would investigate the matter and perhaps issue a statement that the 1995 DNA proved nothing.

Jim Roberts handled the situation regarding the affidavits via emails to Duke, but ignored her request to disclose his job title at the Clay County Prosecutor’s office. Right off the bat his statements were very unprofessional and disappointing. According to him Clay County is not going to give any credence to Caruso’s confession of fraud, and they are not going to investigate this very serious matter.

Duke left several telephone messages requesting Prosecuting Attorney Dan White to call her, but as of this date he has failed to do so. Duke asks how the Clay County employees involved in ignoring their own lawyer’s confession of fraud can justify suppressing the truth, ultimately denying Jesse James’ true descendants their birthright for the proverbial bowl of beans (tourist dollars) Jesse James brings to them? She and Ellison are hopeful they will reconsider and take full responsibility for their actions since genealogical and historical accuracy is at stake.

Duke claims the James Farm & Museum is in a perfect position to discredit any new information pertaining to Jesse James’ life and death because the media perceives them as being “the authority on Jesse James”. Having talked with them on a number of occasions she claims what they tell her is much different than what they tell reporters.

In 1999 Duke petitioned Falls County Judge Meyer to grant an order to exhume the grave in Blevins Cemetery bearing James L. Courtney’s name for DNA testing purposes. Although initially disappointed that he denied her request she now realizes that it was for the best. Why? Because even if Jesse James did assume the alias of James L. Courtney and lived and died in Texas, the fraudulent DNA sequence his DNA sequence would have been compared against would have shown that he wasn’t.

Duke believes that Jesse James was born in Clay County, Missouri, but a recently discovered eBay photograph of the James family literally shows what DNA failed to prove – Jesse James got away with his own 1882 murder and lived out the remainder of his life in Texas as James L. Courtney.

James Family / Blevins, Texas
The eBay photograph